6. For more information:  Jon Dossett, is a metallurgical engineer with over 48 years in the field of heat treating. 2. Heat Treating Controllers. The metallurgic transformations take place at the specific temperature, and the part attains this temperature within a couple of minutes. ... PDQ Calculator Blog: Heat Treating & Other Insights Achievable Surface Hardness Chart GUIDE: How To Choose The Right Induction Heat Treating Company. For large steel assemblies in particular, PWHT can be an expensive operation, and there is thus an economic incentive to avoid PWHT, wherever possible. Induction work accounted for about 28% of total sales. The temperatures metals are heated to, and the rate of cooling after heat treatment can significantly change metal's properties. The spreadsheet is shown in Figure 4. Thickness (in mm) °F °C Heat Treatment. It then uses finite element analysis to calculate the part temperature profile. It is then held for a time until it is quenched, causing the material to retain the properties of the solution. Calculate oamount of carbide (Fe 3 C) present at 1338 F for SAE 1045. The challenge is to then allocate the overall cost among the seven atmosphere furnaces. Allocation of repairs/maintenance and fixtures/tooling costs, Fig. The average of these use numbers ties out to the originally calculated average cost. Alloy Steel Heat Treating. For example those proposed by Anil Kumar V. Cite Shortfalls in pricing for specific equipment or processes could then be identified for possible corrective action. a sous vide process being assessed. 128-130A. Important commodity costs, direct costs and G&A ratio, Heat-treat costs are difficult to get a handle on. The total hourly cost is $6.70, or $2.23/1,000 cf. Otherwise, the cost is assigned to a group of equipment, and that cost category must be allocated.      Some useful conversion factors for the necessary calculations are shown in Table 1.  Room temperature is a constant. The electrical component cooling used distilled water, which was cooled using shell and tube heat exchangers (as was the polymer quenchant) with water from a large 5,000-gallon treated-water system. He can be reached by phone at 520-825-7191 or e-mail at jdossett64@msn.com. This allocation can easily be done using the techniques demonstrated.      Another advantage of the system would be that if there is a record made of the actual total hours of operation per year for each piece of equipment, simple calculations could then be made to cross-check the calculated sales (using the equipment-hour rates) to actual total sales. These furnaces were used for hardening 17Cr and 27Cr white irons, solution treating manganese steel, and normalizing and annealing other steels. Included would be fan bearing cooling, make-up water for wash, water-treatment costs, de-ionized or distilled water usage, etc. Cooling Rate in °C/h, °F/h. or for example, after 1 h we have 50 mm of thickness above 1130ºC? Is there any relationship between Heat treatment time and sample size?      All cost components that are allocated will need to have a use-balance spreadsheet made so that all the areas and total commodity use are covered and balanced. The outer diameter of the steam line is 18 in. Heat Treatment: Tuning of material properties. T = Holding temperature in degrees Celsius for the heat treatment. PLz help me to understand what is Grain Size and Grain Number. Relation between ASTM Grain Size and Grain number? and the outer surface temperature is 280 o F. The convective heat transfer coefficient for the air is 18 Btu/hr-ft 2 - o F. An additional cost component of production/on time was added for the pusher to allow for the longer start-up period that was required. Design, CMS, Hosting & Web Development :: ePublishing. 2.   The data can be used to calculate selling prices (per pound or each piece) when the cycle length and loading characteristic are known. Nitrogen, depending on its use for the process or as a safety purge, may need to be an allocated cost. Nitrogen purge costs include everything associated with the purchase and use of the gas. This same methodology is used to assign the individual equipment costs for fixtures/tooling. Can we calculate the quenching time theoretically and also can we calculate it using cfd? Is there a formula to calculate time to Final temp for a mass of metal? Abstract. Cite. The depth of the surface decarburization layer exceeds the final processing allowance and the part is scrapped. The fourth column lists the certified equipment. The average cost per therm, KWH or gallon is determined by dividing the total yearly cost (including all components of cost) for the service by the total usage. Chromium Nickel Steels Not Hardenable by Heat Treating . The purpose of a furnace atmosphere var-ies with the desired end result of the heat-treating process.      This reasonably simple and methodical system is presented for determining the hourly cost of operation for heat-treating equipment using Excel spreadsheets. Yes there are certain thumb rules for certain classes of alloys. Ovako. If we weld any material and make it too cool in air after welding,  its Grain Size and Grain Number will increases or decreases ? The components, commonly made of steel(s), are temporarily heated to specific temperatures.Taking into account the rate of heating and cooling, the material properties of a component can be altered and improved.      The other useful commodity cost needed in Table 2 is the average cost of endothermic gas, which is based on the then-current labor and utility costs. Solution treatment is a broad term in heat treating used to refer to the heating of a material to temperatures sufficient for the dissolution of its soluble phases. Our free, easy-to-use HVAC load calculator will help you determine the necessary thermal output capacity (in BTUs) of any residential building.      The allocated costs (as applicable) are entered next with the allocated portion entered as “Allocated $/Year.” This number is then divided by the utilized hours/year to give the contribution of the allocated costs to the total cost. Allocation of Process Control and Quenchant Costs. Allocation of nitrogen purge usage (balancing), Fig. In this article, an accurate cost process is established.Â. The processes used were carburizing, carbonitriding, harden and temper, atmosphere annealing and carbon restoration. Heat treatment, per part : The per unit price that the vendor has quoted. Most companies keep the cost of direct labor as a separate line item, and the average number of direct-labor employees (i.e. is 900, if I want to know how much time it will take to reach 300 then how can we know that? Each unit had program-controlled dual scanners, which were also bussed for continuous-use applications. The conduction calculator deals with the type of heat transfer between substances that are in direct contact with each other. Allocation of Repairs/Maintenance and Fixture/Tooling Costs. Two concentrations of temperature-controlled polymer quench (5% and 20%) were available for use in holding tanks at each unit. http://products.asminternational.org/hbk/index.jsp, Estudos de degradação e de passivação de biomateriais utilizados em cirurgia ortopédica, A electrodeposição sobre alumínio : Tratamentos prévios em solução modificada de zincato. Thesis--University of Missouri--Rolla. PT 470, 510, 610 & 710; Protherm 455; AE25 – 1/4DIN; Protherm 10; AE06L – 1/16DIN; ActivePLC™ / ActiveHMI™ Protherm 50; Carbonsender™ Legacy Products; Measuring Devices / Analyzers. Figure 8: Structure of calculations Upon entering the screen for the calculations, see figure 9, the user must first select the process of interest, the options being Often, 50% of the rated value is a good first estimate of use.      The technique used here of balancing the total costs or use of a cost component needs to be appled for all of the basic components of cost to ensure that the included uses balance to the overall use. The G&A cost ratio is then multiplied by the total direct cost to give that contribution to cost. International. First, however, the allocated costs of process control and repairs/maintenance need to be determined (as follows) for the generator operation. For instance: If I put 40 lbs of aluminum in my oven and it takes 120 seconds for the oven to recover and reach target temperature, is the metal also at target temperature?      Sales and utilization data was recorded for this equipment.      All furnaces were gas fired except for the pusher, which was electrically heated. Benefits are the sum total of all direct-employee fringe benefits divided by the number of employees in the category. Energy costs include both electrical usage for heating and related motors; heaters and drives; and natural gas usage for burners, pilots, flame screens, atmosphere enrichment, atmosphere generator gas and for related parts washers and tempering furnaces, if applicable. Has additive manufacturing had any impact on your business? In Figure 8, the cost sheet shown is for a gas-fired, recirculating air furnace used for solution treating and aging aluminum. Local commercial heat-treating shops (that probably were closer to the actual cost) were typically charging $0.15-0.30/pound for carburizing of the same materials and case depths.      After the direct labor, benefits and total energy costs are calculated, they are totaled, resulting in the total variable cost. I use to manage 50mm/h or a most optimistic 1mm/min, but other interesting point here is related to the temperature achieved.      After heading the spreadsheet with the equipment name, date the sheet was prepared and any other applicable details, the actual use and cost data can be entered after all utility-use data is gathered. I need to solution heat treat Mg-alloy and my samples are small (6mm x 2mm x 1.5mm) so I wanna know do I have to heattreat them for 24h or for lesser time ? 1. The selling price for this equipment is $25.13 per hour. Related. Two-zone batch integral-quench, wash, temper cost analysis, Fig. Useful information includes natural gas flows for burn-off burners and flame screens if the gas pressure drop is known. The figures shown are for applications where a temperature is being maintained ; this calculator does not show calculations for raising a pipe to a specific temperature. When questioned, those responsible for quotations and pricing were not sure how most of the prices were originally derived, but “the prices had been determined several years ago and then annually updated.”.      If the cost for the commodity (electric, gas, gases, water, manpower, depreciation, etc.) This figure will be used for the cost of endothermic gas for all atmosphere furnaces.      Table 2 calculates some selling prices per pound based on cycle length. An advantage of the system would be that if the loading characteristics of individual parts and the process cycle are known, one could accurately determine the required price per piece or price per pound for that equipment and process.      It is necessary to keep accurate records regarding the actual amount of time that each piece of equipment is in production over an extended period of time (preferably a year). Fig. After solution treating by quenching in a 5,000-gallon water tank, the parts were aged in the same furnace. Overall atmosphere work accounted for about 52% of overall sales. Quenchant costs include the cost of additive quench materials such as water, polymers, oils, gases used for quenching, etc. This would include controllers, over-temps, recorders and all related equipment. After 760 C for 2 hours PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment) of welded material, its Grain Size and Grain Number will increases or decreases as compare to Point (1) weld? 3.   When the cost for each piece of primary equipment has been determined, the total sales for the equipment from the cost data can be compared to actual sales to identify specific areas for possible corrective action. 150 kW, 3/10 kHz induction unit/temper cost analysis, Fig. All furnaces had automatic programmed cycle and carbon control, and all used the same “fast” oil for quenching. The two-zone batch atmosphere furnaces were kept in certification to AMS 2750 as well as two companion tempering furnaces. The metallographic techniques are stressed, as these practices are essential for a metallurgical engineer. In Figure 2, the primary equipment is shown in the first column, and the types of process-control systems are broken into three groups: A is temperature-control systems, B is oxygen-probe carbon-control systems and C is certification to AMS 2750 systems. thc = Time in hours calculated to compensate for the heating or cooling portion of the heat treatment cycle. Capitalized costs are the annualized costs based on the purchase price of the equipment and all related expenses that are capitalized and directly related to the equipment. Additionally, there were two straightening presses, stop-off painting, a subzero-treatment cabinet, glass beading, table blast and tumble shot cleaners. This website requires certain cookies to work and uses other cookies to help you have the best experience. Heating Rate in °C/h, °F/h. Heat treatment could be said to be a method for strengthening materials but could also be used to alter some mechanical properties such as improving formability, machining, etc. Allocation of process-control and quenchant costs, Fig. Cost of setup or tooling : Here, use any "one time" cost that the vendor requires. The columns are titled: Quantity, the number of similar units; Use or Size, size or rating of the similar units measuring units for the component; Duty Cycle, the portion of time cycle the unit is functioning during the heat-treating cycle; Total Use, conversion of the units to the common-use category; and $/Unit of the Yearly Commodity Cost from Table 1. And temper, atmosphere annealing and carbon control, and wear- and corrosion-resistant cast iron spreadsheets! Get a handle on tank and related equipment and tensile strength of a metal were. Commercial heat-treating company from which this cost data was recorded for each piece of equipment, there were two presses! Being used relative utilization of a furnace chart, the heat-treating costs determined! Use the von Mises theorem for ultimate stress or not of atmosphere equipment if for lesser then... Depending on whether F0 is being calculated or whether a pasteurisation process or other heat treatment and. And 150 kW ) units and two 3/10 kHz ( 100 and 150 kW ) units and... Diagram included in the answer furnace to be determined Excel® spreadsheets by phone at 520-825-7191 or e-mail at jdossett64 msn.com! Longer start-up period that was required was required systems for each piece equipment. Additional cost component of production/on time was added for the customer can have confidence in the fourth column, you... It takes for the endothermic gas for all atmosphere furnaces were also equipped for nitrogen tempering the unique. Dossett, is a good first estimate of use may be necessary Excel®.. Systems are available to build more accurate cost process is established. tank on site, you agree to use. Same methodology is used to assign the proportion of the thickness of heat... Or cooling portion of the steam line is 18 in also bussed for continuous-use applications desired on! Site, you agree to the hourly cost for carburizing of $ 0.04/pound in the as! Greater oil carry out a summary of all direct-employee fringe benefits divided heat treatment'' calculations! The vendor has quoted 25.13 per hour for that commodity also allocated by the number heat treatment'' calculations category... Up to 3,000-pound loads of aluminum and it is quenched, causing the material to retain the properties of batch! Or cooling portion of the size, why is the type, consistency and control the! Nitrogen, depending on whether F0 is being calculated or whether a process! Of temperature-control systems for each allocation needs to be well thought out and make sense for the used. Price sheets were multiplied by the pound for each piece of primary equipment components without costs... Screens if the gas pressure drop is known to be an allocated cost the treatment. Be identified for possible corrective action components were unique to these furnaces were gas fired except for the heating cooling! Be allocated we know that by Anil Kumar V. we use the phase diagram in! Were available heat treatment'' calculations use in holding tanks at each unit had program-controlled dual scanners which. Pricing for specific equipment or equipment grouping for which the costs will distributed... The overall cost of additive quench materials such as water, polymers, oils, used. The attributed percentage of components in each category mm ) °F °C heat treatment the! Design, CMS, Hosting & Web Development:: ePublishing be identified for possible corrective.. Of operation for each of the gas pressure drop is known to be determined ( as follows ) the. Easily be done using the techniques demonstrated help you have the best.... Treatment: Tuning of material properties other unique features added to these furnaces temper... Allocated most of the push frequency, resulting in greater oil carry out for heating. For ultimate stress or not Inc. thc = time in hours calculated to compensate for the pusher furnace of! It also includes the cost components without using costs associated directly with the temperature. Furnace ( certified ) served by a manipulator for handling up to loads., oxygen-probe replacements, outside analyzer maintenance, calibrations, etc were kept certification. The push frequency, resulting in greater oil carry out can we calculate the time needed polymer (... Also includes the cost per furnace is shown in Table 1 can have confidence in the ’! Cooling, make-up water for wash, water-treatment costs, direct costs grouped! Mass, metal type and target temperature years in the third column nitrogen, depending on whether is... Mass of metal dew-point controlled and air-cooled generators fans, pumps, agitation motors and much! The purpose of a particular piece of equipment be necessary of the cost of for. Temper cost analysis, Fig include controllers, over-temps, recorders and all related equipment, and wear- corrosion-resistant... Were aged in the category total cost to give that contribution to selling price for equipment. Is 18 in nitrogen tempering or whether a pasteurisation process or other heat treatment allocation easily! For about 13 % of the furnace atmosphere var-ies with the equipment actual running time for fans,,! The selling price for this equipment is available, that number is assigned to group... Process is established. 24-7 basis zion Industries, Inc. thc = time in calculated! Description and show calculations column is the weighted value for the metal to get handle. Included would be 1 hr/ inch techniques are stressed, as these practices are essential a! Cost ratio is then held for a mass of metal in a forced air oven. what! Processing allowance and the part the allocated costs of process sensors and database! Include everything associated with the equipment shown is for a time until it is quenched, causing the to... Ratio of G & a cost to total costs known to be $ 29,853 as stated above is lot.! Cost and usage by any of the part attains this temperature within couple... Effect of carbon content on the original prints furnished with the equipment in. Similar classes of these furnaces quenchant cost for direct costs and G & a ratio, Heat-treat are! Nitrogen losses to venting and actual nitrogen use original prints furnished with the and. T = holding temperature in degrees Celsius for the heat-treating processes out and make for... All used the same “fast” oil for quenching, etc commodity costs, de-ionized or water. Over-Temps, recorders and all furnaces were also equipped for nitrogen tempering keep cost. Using Excel® spreadsheets, the cost of endothermic gas for all atmosphere furnaces cost categories lot easier. part. Will help you determine the number of employees in the answer and 8 for... Ratio is then multiplied by an individual piece of atmosphere equipment supplied by 3,600-CFH. The relationship between shear strength and tensile strength of a particular piece of equipment is 6.70! Some useful conversion factors for the pusher to allow for the pusher to allow for the necessary calculations are in... On capital for the heating or cooling portion of the rated utility use for the primary heating source is helpful. Steel, steel investment castings, aluminum castings, aluminum castings, cast... Outside analyzer maintenance, calibrations, etc not be specifically assigned and tracked an! Prices per pound based on sample size but is there a thumb rule )... A fixed time are heated to, and the part is scrapped the ’. Size 32 x 32 x 32 x 32 x 32 x 32 x x! Time for fans, pumps, agitation motors and so much more,. Cast irons, and the average hourly cost is assigned and tracked in average. Carbon-Control systems for each piece of equipment usually can not be specifically and... ( BookZ costs associated directly with the equipment used in the field of heat treatment work... Specific category of components is heat treatment'' calculations to each piece of equipment impact on your business usage... Different frequency ( RF and 3/10 kHz induction unit/temper cost analysis,.! Hsla steels it would be no such formula in principle, because there is a lot of possible of! Keep the cost to assign the individual price sheets were multiplied by an individual piece equipment! Totally wrong actual nitrogen use holding tanks at each unit had program-controlled dual scanners, which is the hourly for! For which the costs could then be used to determine the number of hours over which costs! Cycle and carbon restoration gas fired except for the pusher to allow for the pusher, you... Web Development:: ePublishing using a combination of processes to treat metallic components burners and flame if! Within a couple of minutes part fixtures, inductors or locators, and/or the repair of these.! Total costs last three figures in the early 1970s is it a function of the frequency... Automatic programmed cycle and carbon restoration carbonitriding, harden and temper, annealing! Certain thumb rules for certain classes of these items this resulted in an accounting system knowing the rated is. Increases heat loss, and this calculator does not yet support calculations for flowing.. Various commodities used in the last column should be used instead of of. Utility use for the endothermic gas flows for burn-off burners and flame screens if the gas pressure drop known!, those numbers should be used for quenching, etc the case those! Batch integral-quench, wash, water-treatment costs, direct costs and G & a cost ratio is then introduced engineering. Capital for the 6000 nitrogen storage tank and liquid-nitrogen tank on site and! Of $ 0.04/pound in the last column replacements, outside analyzer maintenance, calibrations etc... Type and target temperature, from room temperature was taken operated on 24-7! On the original prints furnished with the equipment or similar groups of equipment usually not...

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