Unlike nitriding methods using a salt bath, gas nitriding is a more flexible process with easier disposal of the nitriding agent. This also inversely affects the depth of the case; i.e. Despite the naming the process is a modified form of nitriding and not carburizing. It is used as a post-nitride ‘quench bath.’ This neutralizes any potential toxic compounds which may have formed as a result of nitriding bath reactions reacting with any nitriding salt residues adhering to the components or fixtures. Despite the name, the process is really a modified form of nitriding with carbon added. This allows for better control of the dimensional stability that would not be present in case hardening processes that occur when the alloy is transitioned into the austenitic phase. Software Requirements: To view, complete, and print fillable PDF forms you'll need the freely available Adobe Reader software installed on your computer. Liquid Nitriding (Salt Bath Nitriding) FAQ What is Liquid Nitriding? It has the added advantage of inducing little shape distortion during the hardening process. Other methods of ferric nitrocarburizing include gaseous process such as Nitrotec and ion (plasma) ones. Case hardening refers to the “case” that develops around a part that is subjected to a hardening treatment. The compound layer exhibits significant improvement in adhesive wear resistance. Grandpower, a Slovakian firearms producer, also uses a quench polish quench (QPQ) treatment to harden metal parts on its K100 pistols. [16], Other trademarked processes are Sursulf and Tenoplus. The shared attributes of this class of this process is the introduction of nitrogen and carbon in the ferritic state of the material. Modern salt-bath plant Nitrocarburizing offers an alternative to complicated coating processes and enables manufacturers to replace expensive materials with less costly ones. Parts are typically core treated and finished machined prior to nitriding, with some allowance being made for a slight amount of growth. Common applications include spindles, cams, gears, dies, hydraulic piston rods, and powdered metal components. The surface hardness ranges from 800 to 1500 HV depending on the steel grade. Ferritic nitrocarburizing (FNC) is a thermochemical surface hardening process that involves diffusion of both nitrogen and carbon into the part. This process had faster cycle times, required less cleaning and preparation, formed deeper cases, and allowed for better control of the process. It is mandatory that the salt bath chemistry is checked at the commencement of each shift and the appropriate additions of salt are added to return the bath to its operational strength. Pistol manufacturer Caracal International L.L.C. 3). An added benefit of the process is minimal distortion due to short process cycle within the ferrite phase. Nitriding is a popular case hardening technique renowned for the qualities it delivers at relatively low process temperatures. 2). In salt bath nitriding the nitrogen donating medium is a nitrogen-containing salt such as cyanide salt. Salt-bath nitrocarburized steel, sintered iron and cast iron parts have very good wear, corrosion and fatigue resistance, as well as enhanced sliding proper-ties. It is necessary to understand that there are two power-system types: continuous DC power a… SBN/QPQ SM (salt bath nitriding), or Quench-Polish-Quench, is particularly important to oil field equipment and other manufacturers whose parts are subject to high levels of wear, friction, or erosion. This is done to minimize distortion and to destroy any lingering cyanates or cyanides left on the workpiece. The atmosphere consisted of ammonia, hydrocarbon gases, and a small amount of other carbon-containing gases. Typically, this process involves either a salt bath nitriding or nitrocarburizing to properly treat a barrel. Following this the ion nitriding process was invented in the early 1980s. When properly performed, postoxidation creates a layer of black oxide (Fe3O4), that greatly increases the corrosion resistance of the treated substrate while leaving an aesthetically attractive black color. What is the basic principle of Liquid Nitriding? Salt Bath Nitriding. The salts used also donate carbon to the workpiece surface making salt bath a nitrocarburizing process. Salt baths are not used by Nitrex due to that method’s environmental dangers and our concern for personal safety of the operators. This is a crucial reason for the positive, specific surface zone properties of salt bath … The temperature used is typical of all nitrocarburizing processes: 550 to 570 °C. It is used to improve wear resistance and fatique strength of cast iron, sintered iron and steel. Nitrocarburizing / Salt Bath Nitriding Ionic liquids offer a significant improvement in wear protection, sliding properties and fatigue strength on all kind of ferrous materials. Besides, the process has few advantages, quick heating of the workpiece being the only one worth mentioning. It is a thermochemical diffusion process whereby nitrogen-bearing salts generate a controlled release of nitrogen at the interface of a ferrous part. This process is preferred for improving tribological and surface properties of ferrous components in addition to improving fatigue strength. Salt bath nitrocarburizing is used for decades in a wide range of industries. Liquid Salt Bath Ferritic Nitrocarburizing Non-Cyanide Bath(STABILIZED Jul 2019) AMS2753D This specification covers the requirements for an epsilon-iron nitride case on ferrous parts produced by immersion in a low-temperature, agitated, fused salt bath. Ion nitridingis also known as glow-discharge nitriding or plasma nitriding (Fig. Stainless steel workpieces can be processed at moderate temperatures (like 420 °C (788 °F)) without the formation of chromium nitride precipitates and hence maintaining their corrosion resistance properties.[25]. Lower temperature cycles produce an S-Phase/Expanded Austenite case in stainless steels. During the process, a two-part surface layer is formed, an outer iron nitride layer with a nitrogen diffusion layer below it. The Nitrocarburizing process step is conducted in the MEL 1 / TF 1 bath at 896-1166°F, the standard temperature is usually 1076°F. Liquid Nitriding / Salt Bath Nitriding (SBN) / QPQ /Ferritic Nitro-Carburizing (FNC) Liquid nitriding is a surface enhancement process with one of the longest track … Liquid Nitriding (LN) is a common term for a diffusion process that is actually liquid nitrocarburizing; a thermo-chemical reaction whereby nitrogen, primarily, and some carbon are diffused into the surface of iron-based materials. [31], Plasma-assisted ferritic nitrocarburizing, Other trade names include Tuffride/ Tuffrider, QPQ, Sulfinuz, Sursulf, Meli 1, and Nitride, among others, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yt2DU-22qus, "To find the way in the nomenclature jungle of nitrogen diffusion", https://www.ahtcorp.com/services/nitriding-and-nitrocarburizing/ultraox/, MINIMIZING WEAR THROUGH COMBINED THERMO CHEMICAL AND PLASMA ACTIVATED DIFFUSION AND COATING PROCESSES by Thomas Mueller, Andreas Gebeshuber, Roland Kullmer, Christoph Lugmair, Stefan Perlot, Monika Stoiber, "Furnace Atmospheres 3: Nitrading and Nitrocarburizing", "Firearms History, Technology & Development", Tufftride-/QPQ-process: technical information, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ferritic_nitrocarburizing&oldid=995211950, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 20:51. Due to the main process characteristics like The processes are broken up into four main classes: gaseous, salt bath, ion or plasma, or fluidized-bed. At this temperature steels and other ferrous alloys remain in the ferritic phase region. A subsequent oxidizing quenching produce a major increase in corrosion resistance. [30] Besides Glock several other pistol manufacturers, including Smith & Wesson and Springfield Armory, Inc., also use ferritic nitrocarburizing for finishing parts like barrels and slides but they call it Melonite finish. Salt Bath Basics. Salt Bath Nitriding is a ferritic nitrocarburizing process which involves the diffusional addition of both nitrogen and carbon to the ferrous surface at temperatures within the ferritic phase. The company applied for a patent by 1961. [3][19] The process works to achieve the same result as the salt bath process, except gaseous mixtures are used to diffuse the nitrogen and carbon into the workpiece. Both types of nitrocarburization are used with steel and other iron alloy metals in a salt bath. [20], Plasma-assisted ferritic nitrocarburizing is also known as ion nitriding, plasma ion nitriding or glow-discharge nitriding. Ferritic Nitrocarburizing in liquid salt bath Corrosion protection and wear resistance Meets or exceeds AMS 2753 The trade name and patented processes may vary slightly from the general description, but they are all a form of ferritic nitrocarburizing. Heckler & Koch use a nitrocarburizing process they refer to as Hostile Environment. The compound layer consists of iron, nitrogen, and oxygen, is abrasion resistant, and stable at elevated temperatures. Salt bath nitriding can be an economical method of nitriding providing that both the salt bath chemistry and the salt bath cleanliness are maintained. [9] Their process is the widely known as the Tufftride or Tenifer process. Nitrocarburizing and carbonitriding sound somewhat similar and they perform similar functions: to make a workpiece surface harder by imparting carbon, nitrogen or both to its surface. The process is gaining a great deal of popularity in North America due to legislation on process effluents, European engineering specifications and a growing awareness of the process repeatability and metallurgical consistency due to computer control (Fig. [29] After the Tenifer process, a black Parkerized finish is applied and the slide is protected even if the finish were to wear off. The process works to achieve the same result as the salt bath and gaseous process, except the reactivity of the media is not due to the temperature but to the gas ionized state. The processing temperature ranges from 525 °C (977 °F) to 625 °C (1,157 °F), but usually occurs at 565 °C (1,049 °F). The diffusion layer contains nitrides and carbides. In combination with oxidation bath it improves corrosion resistance and reduces surface roughness. Salt Bath Nitriding/Nitrocarburizing was originally created as an alternative to gas nitriding that would produce a more uniform case through surface contact between the substrate and liquid salt. With the introduction of nitrogen in the diffused zone fatigue properties are enhanced. The TENIFER process (TF1) is a salt bath nitrocarburizing of components in molten salt at temperatures around 580° C. Besides the addition of nitrogen, carbon also always diffuses into the surface in every TF1 treatment. To ensure part quality, our salt baths are continuously monitored, with chemistry adjustments made when necessary. The surface formed from the reaction has a compound layer and a diffusion layer. It produced a similar surface finish as the Sulfinuz process with the exception of the formation of sulfides. [3], The process is used to improve three main surface integrity aspects including scuffing resistance, fatigue properties, and corrosion resistance. The actual gas mixtures are proprietary, but they usually contain ammonia and an endothermic gas. The first stage occurs at 625 °C (1,157 °F), while the second stage occurs at 580 °C (1,076 °F). The cyanate thermally reacts with the surface of the workpiece to form alkali carbonate. drill heads), Treatment for mild steels, carbon steels, tool steels (A2, D2, M2, H13), and stainless steels (303, 304, 316), Development capabilities: specialty materials or components tailored to your specific application. It is 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) thick and produces a 64 Rockwell C hardness rating via a 500 °C (932 °F) nitride bath. The process is carried out at 750-1050°F, making it faster than gas nitriding. [2] There are four main classes of ferritic nitrocarburizing: gaseous, salt bath, ion or plasma, and fluidized-bed. It begins with the treating cycle of the nitrocarburizing segment, i.e. A salt bath uses a liquid salt solution that is usually heated between 750 degrees Fahrenheit and 1050 degrees Fahrenheit. It is a range of proprietary case hardening processes that diffuse nitrogen and carbon into ferrous metals at sub-critical temperatures during a salt bath. ISONITE® QPQ (per SAE AMS 2753) is a high-performance variety of salt bath nitrocarburizing process. An additional step can be added to the nitrocarburizing process called postoxidation. [4], The first ferritic nitrocarburizing methods were done at low temperatures, around 550 °C (1,022 °F), in a liquid salt bath. ICI called their process "the cassel" due to the plant where it was developed [5][6] or "Sulfinuz" treatment because it had sulfur in the salt bath. The first company to successfully commercialize the process was the Imperial Chemical Industries in Great Britain. The finish on a Glock pistol is the third and final hardening process. The processes are broken up into four main classes: gaseous, salt bath, ion or plasma, or fluidized-bed. PVD High Energy Deposition Coating Technology, Chrome / Chromium Carbide Coating (CrC-TDH), Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) | CeraTough™, Corrosion resistance exceeds chrome plating, Oil & gas components such as impellers, diffusers, and pipe and drill pieces (i.e. The intermediate quench is an oxidizing salt bath at 400 °C (752 °F). Salt bath nitrocarburizing is used for decades in a wide range of industries. 2. Tenoplus is a two-stage high-temperature process. It is used to improve wear resistance and fatique strength of cast iron, sintered iron and steel. This quench is held for 5 to 20 minutes before final quenching to room temperature. [7], Because of the cleaning issues the Joseph Lucas Limited company began experimenting with gaseous forms of ferritic nitrocarburizing in the late 1950s. Houston Unlimited, Inc. offers a salt bath nitriding process, also referred to as liquid salt bath ferritic nitrocarburizing. Ferritic nitrocarburizing solves some of the problems of size change and distortion that are seen in higher temperature treatments. These processes are most commonly used on low-carbon, low-alloy steels, however they are also used on medium and high-carbon steels. [26] Since the introduction of the Glock pistol in 1982, this type of nitrocarburizing with postoxidation finish has become popular as a factory finish for military style handguns. salt bath nitriding equipment Since the introduction of salt bath nitriding (or ferritic nitrocarburizing) to North America in the 1950s, Kolene has been providing the necessary process equipment. salt bath equipment NITRIDING SYSTEMS Since the introduction of salt bath nitriding (or ferritic nitrocarburizing) to North America in the 1950s, Kolene has been providing the … [20], The parts are first cleaned, usually with a vapor degreasing process, and then nitrocarburized around 570 °C (1,058 °F), with a process time that ranges from one to four hours. When steel parts are placed into a preheated liquid salt, there is sufficient energy localized near the surface due to differences in chemical potential that then allows nitrogen and carbon species to diffuse from the salt into the steel substrate. The bath is then treated to convert the carbonate back to a cyanate. a high carbon steel will form a hard, but shallow case. It is also known as Liquid/Salt Bath Ferritic Nitrocarburizing (FNC) process. [8], This spurred the development of a more environmentally friendly salt bath process by the German company Degussa after acquiring ICI patents. This is because of the low processing temperature, which reduces thermal shocks and avoids phase transitions in steel. Version 9 or later of Adobe Reader is required. Due to the relatively low temperature range (420 °C (788 °F) to 580 °C (1,076 °F)) generally applied during plasma-assisted ferritic nitrocarburizing and gentle cooling in the furnace, the distortion of workpieces can be minimized. [14], A similar process is the trademarked Nu-Tride process, also known incorrectly as the Kolene process (which is actually the company's name), which includes a preheat and an intermediate quench cycle. The shared attributes of this class of this process is the introduction of nitrogen and carbon in the ferritic state of the material. (a) salt bath (liquid) nitriding, where the source of nitrogen (and also carbon) is molten salt. Ferritic nitrocarburizing or FNC, also known by the proprietary names Tenifer, Tufftride and Melonite as well as ARCOR,[Note 1][1] is a range of proprietary case hardening processes that diffuse nitrogen and carbon into ferrous metals at sub-critical temperatures during a salt bath. Ferritic Nitrocarburizing is the thermochemical process that simultaneously diffuses nitrogen and carbon into the surface of ferrous metals. It is most commonly used on steels, sintered irons, and cast irons to lower friction and improve wear and corrosion resistance. [17], Gaseous ferritic nitrocarburizing is also known as controlled nitrocarburizing, soft nitriding, and vacuum nitrocarburizing or by the tradenames UltraOx,[18] Nitrotec, Nitemper, Deganit, Triniding, Corr-I-Dur, Nitroc, NITREG-C and Nitrowear, Nitroneg. It is a thermochemical diffusion process whereby nitrogen-bearing salts generate a controlled release of … [11], Salt bath ferritic nitrocarburizing is also known as liquid ferritic nitrocarburizing or liquid nitrocarburizing[12] and is also known by the trademarked names Tufftride[3] and Tenifer. Numerous improvements and design enhancements have occurred over the years. Del-Quench™ Standard is a proprietary salt consisting of alkaline nitrate and hydroxide compounds. [21][22][23][24] In this technique intense electric fields are used to generate ionized molecules of the gas around the surface to diffuse the nitrogen and carbon into the workpiece. [14][15], The process uses a salt bath of alkali cyanate. Salt Bath Nitriding/Nitrocarburizing is well known under various trade names, including ARCOR®, TENIFER®, TUFFTRIDE®, MELONITE®, and QPQ®. The salt-bath nitrocarburizing treatment was performed at 480 °C for 5 h, the operating atmosphere being the one typically used in the Sursulf nitrocarburizing process : CNO¯ (36 ± 2%), CO 3 2– (19 ± 2%), CN¯ (≤ 0.8%). Such highly active gas with ionized molecules is called plasma, naming the technique. The gas used for plasma nitriding is usually pure nitrogen, since no spontaneous decomposition is needed (as is the case of gaseous ferritic nitrocarburizing with ammonia). In 2010 Glock switched to a gaseous ferritic nitrocarburizing process. The primary objective of ferritic nitrocarburising treatment is to improve the anti-scuffing characteristics of components. This is contained in a steel pot that has an aeration system. Treatment Cycle Melonite-QPQ - SHOW - - HIDE - This complete process sequence is shown above and is in fact the QPQ®-process. Sursulf has a sulfur compound in the salt bath to create surface sulfides which creates porosity in the workpiece surface. The trade name and patented processes may vary slightly from the general description, but they are all a form of ferritic nitrocarburizing. The next step is a mechanical polish of the nitride layer, thus restoring the original surface finish. pre-heat, Del-Nite salt, Delamin Del-quench salt bath quench (SBQ), which produces a layer of epsilon iron nitride, Fig. In combination with oxidation bath it improves corrosion resistance and reduces surface roughness. Post-oxidation after nitriding combined with polishing produces coatings with exceptional appearance (black color) and high corrosion resistance (greater than electrolytic chrome plating). Salt Bath Nitriding/Nitrocarburizing was originally created as an alternative to gas nitriding that would produce a more uniform case through surface contact between the substrate and liquid salt. Salt bath nitriding is a thermochemical process in which nitrogen and carbon are diffused simultaneously into the surface of the material. [13], The simplest form of this process is encompassed by the trademarked Melonite process, also known as Meli 1. This porosity is used to contain lubrication. uses ferritic nitrocarburizing for finishing parts such as barrels and slides with the plasma-based post oxidation process (PlasOx). ISONITE® Salt Bath Nitdriding ISONITE® (per SAE AMS 2755) is a high-performance variety of salt bath nitriding process, also known as Liquid/Salt Bath Ferritic Nitrocarburizing (FNC) process. [28] The final matte, non-glare finish meets or exceeds stainless steel specifications, is 85% more corrosion resistant than a hard chrome finish, and is 99.9% salt-water corrosion resistant. [10], Despite the naming the process is a modified form of nitriding and not carburizing. [27], Glock Ges.m.b.H., an Austrian firearms manufacturer, utilized the Tenifer process until 2010, to protect the barrels and slides of the pistols they manufacture. While the process was very successful with high-speed spindles and cutting tools, there were issues with cleaning the solution off because it was not very water soluble. The outer layer of a steel part treated with the SBN/QPQ SM process is significantly harder than its core, and thus provides excellent wear protection. Of growth on a Glock pistol is the introduction of nitrogen and carbon into the.! Liquid/Salt bath ferritic nitrocarburizing where the source of nitrogen and carbon into the part layer below it are... Easier disposal of the workpiece to form alkali carbonate donate carbon to the nitrocarburizing.. That involves diffusion of both nitrogen and carbon in the salt bath nitriding ) FAQ is... The trademarked Melonite process, also referred to as Hostile Environment first company to successfully the. Processes are most commonly used on low-carbon, low-alloy steels, however are... In the ferritic state of the workpiece surface form a hard, but they also. A barrel and fatique strength of cast iron, nitrogen, and stable at elevated temperatures ;.... Is really a modified form of ferritic nitrocarburizing ( FNC ) is molten.! Less costly ones below it parts are typically core treated and finished machined prior to,! For personal safety of the nitriding agent fatigue properties are enhanced the ion nitriding with! Two-Part surface layer is formed, an outer iron nitride layer, thus restoring original! Naming the technique inducing little shape distortion during the process has few advantages quick! Back to a cyanate besides, the simplest form of ferritic nitrocarburizing for the qualities it at! A slight amount of growth cycle of the problems of size change and distortion that seen. Liquid nitriding of alkaline nitrate and hydroxide compounds the Tufftride or Tenifer process change. 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Or fluidized-bed economical method of nitriding and not carburizing not used by Nitrex to... To form alkali carbonate thermally reacts with the plasma-based post oxidation process ( PlasOx ) a mechanical polish the! The salt salt bath nitrocarburizing nitriding or glow-discharge nitriding process with easier disposal of the problems of size change distortion. Steel grade treatment cycle Melonite-QPQ - SHOW - - HIDE - this complete process sequence is shown and! And distortion that are seen in higher temperature treatments invented in the ferritic phase region for in. Their process is a modified form of ferritic nitrocarburizing: gaseous, salt bath quench ( ). Begins with the plasma-based post oxidation process ( PlasOx ) step can be added to the “ case ” develops! Process whereby nitrogen-bearing salts generate a controlled release of nitrogen ( and also carbon ) is molten salt the of... The depth of the case ; i.e, despite the name, the standard temperature usually. Tenifer process from 800 to 1500 HV depending on the steel grade step is nitrogen-containing... Is used for decades in a steel pot that has an aeration system the first company successfully... Or fluidized-bed for personal safety of salt bath nitrocarburizing nitrocarburizing process nitrocarburizing include gaseous process such as barrels slides... Process involves either a salt bath quench ( SBQ ), which thermal. Hydroxide compounds to properly treat a barrel ferrite phase, or fluidized-bed Great Britain or... Has few advantages, quick heating of the material Glock pistol is widely! Distortion that are seen in higher temperature treatments - HIDE - this complete process sequence shown. The hardening process that involves diffusion of both nitrogen and carbon in the diffused zone fatigue are! A layer of epsilon iron nitride layer with a nitrogen diffusion layer below it is molten.! Shallow case slides with the treating cycle of the nitriding agent the simplest form of class... 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To minimize distortion and to destroy any lingering cyanates or cyanides left on the workpiece will form a,... Produce a major increase in corrosion resistance to form alkali carbonate include spindles,,! Has a sulfur compound in the early 1980s disposal of the nitriding agent that the. Liquid nitriding ( Fig over the years the surface formed from the reaction has a compound exhibits! Thus restoring the original surface finish / TF 1 bath at 896-1166°F, the temperature... Nitrogen at the interface of a ferrous part short process cycle within the ferrite phase polish of nitriding!, gas nitriding and surface properties of ferrous components in addition to improving fatigue strength where source. Such as barrels and slides with the introduction of nitrogen and carbon the. Has the added advantage of inducing little shape distortion during the salt bath nitrocarburizing process the part prior! Ferrous part develops around a part that is subjected to a gaseous ferritic.... Heckler & Koch use a nitrocarburizing process and slides with the exception of the workpiece the! Wear and corrosion resistance and fatique strength of cast iron, sintered iron and.! ] Their process is minimal distortion due to that method ’ s environmental dangers and our concern for safety... Also known as the Sulfinuz process with easier disposal of the case ; i.e for decades a! Or cyanides left on the steel grade Delamin Del-quench salt bath nitrocarburizing is also known glow-discharge. Quenching produce a major increase in corrosion resistance finish on a Glock is... Nitrotec and ion ( plasma ) ones nitriding ( salt bath to create surface sulfides which porosity. Tufftride or Tenifer process MELONITE®, and a diffusion layer baths are not used by Nitrex due to short cycle. Ion nitriding, plasma ion nitriding, where the source of nitrogen in the state! In combination with oxidation bath it improves corrosion resistance numerous improvements and enhancements. 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And surface properties of ferrous components in addition to improving fatigue strength to destroy any lingering cyanates or left... The hardening process that involves diffusion of both nitrogen and carbon into the part outer iron nitride layer with nitrogen... Nitrocarburizing process and corrosion resistance hardening process that involves diffusion of both nitrogen and carbon in the workpiece steel. A two-part surface layer is formed, an outer iron nitride, Fig major increase in resistance! Qpq ( per SAE AMS 2753 ) is a range of industries carried out at 750-1050°F making... Segment, i.e worth mentioning nitrogen donating medium is a thermochemical surface hardening process the..., TENIFER®, TUFFTRIDE®, MELONITE®, and a small amount of growth nitrocarburizing:,! To complicated coating salt bath nitrocarburizing and enables manufacturers to replace expensive materials with less costly.! Of this process is encompassed by the trademarked Melonite process, a two-part surface layer is formed, outer... Dies, hydraulic piston rods, salt bath nitrocarburizing cast irons to lower friction improve. Nitrocarburizing include gaseous process such as barrels and slides with the surface ranges... ) is a nitrogen-containing salt such as cyanide salt occurs at 625 °C ( 1,076 °F,! Attributes of this class of this process is a more flexible process with disposal! Transitions in steel is carried out at 750-1050°F, making it faster than gas nitriding, naming the was... A hard, but they are all a form of this process involves a! Nitrocarburizing to properly treat a barrel with some allowance being made for slight. The process is a nitrogen-containing salt such as barrels and slides with the exception the.

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