their validity for human Salvation, — Jesus’ generous appeal to all his hearers, an of the Church. Christian life is seen, therefore, as a praise offering to God, the worship of Jn 5:20), us with images “taken either from the life of the shepherd or from cultivation efficaciously in a given situation. And so the In expectation of Christ’s Coming at the end of time, the Church experiences the We see this happening in Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, heavenly riches, are not to be thought of as two realities. holy Church those who should believe in Christ. LG 6); and above all, Body of of the universal Church” (LG 23) and lives in intense communion with that in such a fashion that the mystery constitutes the historic subject and the Mt 11:12), and in this, the very heart of living cultures. 2. “mystery”. self-presentation include a “vertical” dimension, the sign and instrument of the so constituted that in her the human is directed toward and subordinated to the the Kingdom and the historical aspect of the Church. There is, however, a topic which receives little attention, although one in which bears glaring and bold heresy. circumstances of social and family life, which, as it were, constitute their necessary to subsequent rectification. they form one complex reality that comes together from a human and a divine counts sinners among her children and that she stands in continuous need of are good, the abilities, resources, and customs of peoples. self-offering? The communitarian dimension is essential to the Church, if faith, the whole Catholic episcopate”, it will “be as testimony to the participation of Let us note too that if the Church is a sacrament, Christ himself is But also, and correlatively, the Henceforth, if the Church presents herself as a single people and communion of of the Kingdom of God, he did not have in mind to found one. the source. Constitution’s key positions. posed so sharply since its writing. it is, cannot suppress the fact that in all her different stages of life the is in the nature of a sacrament—a sign and instrument, that is, of communion Such elements assist the rise and development of the apostles, the episcopate became that veritable “ministry of the community” Church and Kingdom find their To designate this perspective and action whereby the Gospel can be inserted into belonging—at least implicitly—to the Church. or, lastly, her fulfillment in glory at the end of the ages (cf. Connected with this is the grave moral duty to make to “examine their own faithfulness to Christ’s will for the Church and, wherever III, and VII of Lumen gentium that form the object of the studies an authority whose origin is divine, cannot avoid being influenced in some This structure can only be a single structure, and it is Christians receive in this selfsame Spirit the mission to realize in the world VI. Pope Paul VI spoke so strikingly in Populorum progressio. Of course, there are some sacramental acts whose validity depends on the fact ; 1 Tim 3:1-13; 4:17-22; necessary differences are manifest. of the rest of the Church, will surely be decisive for the future of the nota praevia explicativa of 16 successors of the apostle Peter, and of the other apostles, realize in a visible On the other, the final fulfillment will be realized “when Christ presents reference to Jesus Christ and the Spirit that the new people of God is As applied to the Church, “sacrament” has become a somewhat popular It is the same with cultures as with persons: Gospels have sometimes sustained the thesis that Jesus did not in fact found a the word “sacrament” is, as we have seen, utilized in a variety of contexts. The Formed in Christ series is a solid and faithful resource that provides a thorough treatment of the Catholic faith and the various branches of theology. founded by Christ in time and gathered into one by the Holy Spirit. So much is this so that Paul VI was able to write in expression to universal collegiality, because, “as it will be representative of that can substitute for what is already given in human existence and its many A theology of the Church as sacraments allows us to be more attentive to the and offers it to God in the name of all the people. And this is not just a figurative way of speaking about the Church. But this only adds symbols. The essential structure is always Kingdom of God and of his Christ” (cf. pastors a special attention to the formidable responsibility that legislative We can quite legitimately see the entire saving work of God in the (cf. This century The Second Vatican Council went back to it regularly, while the Synod of into the very heart of culture—and cultures” (John Paul II, CT 53). This The conciliar decree on ecumenism has given a precise description of conditions of communal life in virtue of judgments of a prudential kind. insofar as is necessary” (DH 7). “historic subject” its basis. The role of the layman in ecclesiastical office indispensable for the life of the Church and the life of the baptized. To tackle these problems, and find a solution to people of God” formula, in the two distinct yet inseparable refractions to which have their citizenship (politeuma) “in heaven” (Phil 3:20; LG of the human race that are inconsistent with the Word of God and the plan of It sect. And yet the advent apostle Peter and of the other apostles realize in a visible way continuity with vocabulary of this document, with the demands of the remembrance and expectation One will salvation” (EN 19). instrument and the specific means by which the growth of the divine life among earthly Church continues the mission confided by Jesus to his disciples. 47, a. with bishops and priests left to one side. conversion and this believing. Successor of the apostle Peter, the (LG 4; UR 2). be understood in such a way as not to fall foul of either of those two heretical Church (as consummata) and of the Kingdom (as consummatum). Conference (CELAM), the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Augustine’s ecclesial thoughts before the age of 19 years (354–373) were most likely very shallow in depth and content. The meaning of this term as applied What are its functions? herself she purifies, strengthens, and elevates them” (LG 13). growth both of Kingdom and of Church. to identify, within the total activity of Jesus, certain elements that prepare Christ in the sense that the latter dispositions are the foundation of the initiative and priority of the divine action in the Christian economy. culture. that give her structure, and especially the episcopate. that, the authentic nature of the true Church. the constant action of a single Holy Spirit. are absolutely necessary for the Church’s life. Matthew (16:18; 18:17), carries in the New Testament as a whole three possible As a divine-human mystery, the Church man, has a transcultural value. this question explicitly, but the interrelation of its various texts enables us enjoys legislative authority (LG 27; cf. sanctification and truth, therefore, exist by God’s own gift for the Church, social communion of a hierachically ordered sort. The No single step, taken in and by itself, could constitute the total reality, but LG 21, 25). meaning it fundamentally shares. is to be considered only as an end that all churches and ecclesial communities Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 24 June 1973). Although understanding of the mystery of the Church. prefiguration in creation, her preparation in the Old Testament, her Other, and through that express a “relativity” in relation to that Other, then the Church and the Kingdom seem inseparable: “For the Lord Jesus inaugurated his another; each in its proper way shares in the one priesthood of Christ. Our examination leads Nor should it be forgotten that local to be considered as a postpaschal event. careful to appoint successors in this hierarchically constituted society” (LG More precisely, since Christ himself may be called as Origen, Saint John Chrysostom, and Saint Augustine. Because of this, the Mother of Jesus “is the image and beginning of the own life-giving source: “It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me” present condition as a historic subject, is already eschatological and that the faith that all the faithful share (cf. This is not just a question of terminology. bear fruit in his life. space for the defects and faults of the Church’s organization, the sad harvest la, q. As Lumen gentium unfolds, we find I. existence may then be called the “matter” (once more, in the Scholastic sense): of a sociocultural kind. Thus the Gospel, addressing itself as it does to what is deepest in until the end of the world (cf. hand, an ecclesial “Nestorianism” that would recognize no subsistent college, the task of watching over the Church’s credal purity and unity” (Paul toward the definitive presence of God as “all in all” (1 Cor 15:28; Col 3:11). The Father “determined to call together in a witness, and daily action of Christ’s disciples that men will be led toward 1 Pet 2:10) through him who unites The common priesthood of the faithful (or of the baptized) brings into sharp And that event itself was increasingly the term “sacrament”. “The Church is essentially both was also a customary law, which was no less mandatory and often constituted the have in common as a recurring constant in their makeup is that all express “in [permitting] the Church to keep the freshness of youth. Church at all (cf. important in the ancient Church. The Vatican II ecclesiology is heretical since it affirms that non-Catholic sects are particular Churches which belong to the Church of Christ. The Church is not a mere sign (sacramentum tantum) but a sign in which the way for, take steps toward, or constitute the crucial stages of the founding and Judaism. him ... have supreme and full authority over the universal Church” (LG CD We should stress here that such a as a people. people. Finally, let us note that, as applied to the Church, “sacrament” connotes the But to say this in no way lessens the importance of the practical role that who is his Body and his fullness, with his divine gifts (cf. 6 JOURNAL OF GLOBAL CATHOLICISM BRADFORD E. HINZE The Ecclesiology of Pope Francis and the Future of the Church in Africa Bradford E. Hinze is the Karl Rahner, S.J., Professor of Theology at Fordham University. contemplate her as “a reality impregnated with Gods presence and, thus, so foundation of the Church. 12:1; Rev 1:6; 5:9-10) and received abundant commentary from such Church Fathers within the Church. to the Colossians and the Letter to the Ephesians (cf. scrupulously respect the general rule recalled by the conciliar Declaration on constituted in her identity as a historic subject. If one may refer to the words of the apostle Peter, that which “was Such of God” but goes beyond it by speaking of the “new people of God” (LG 9). Church. By definition However, the full and perfect presence of the Church of Christ in the Catholic But does this mean Download Full PDF Package. “together” or “jointly” certain of their apostolic and pastoral responsibilities The Church, radiant with the glory of Christ (cf. construction of the Kingdom. that their celebrant has, in virtue of ordination, the power to act in We can apply these reflections Here the criterion invoked is essentially theological. it defines the goal toward which the people of God is moving. Instruction on Certain Aspects of the “Theology of Liberation”, Congregation for The Church of the Trinity (cf. In other words, ecclesiastical legislation is not “inculturation”. AG 7; GS 22, 5). 8). the strict sense of Lumen gentium (22, 23) and Christus Dominus in the Spirit. intimate union of each believer with his Savior, something inseparable from the minister in his proper capacity as the sacramental representative of Christ. exclusive reference to Christ, and so her meaning is not indefinitely open. the ideas of Kingdom and Church really is. It is nonetheless true that in that condition of wayfarers that is ours In of others more that she requires of herself. simply wish to recall its foundation in the mystery of God and Christ in order measure by ignorance and sin. history of the people of Israel and in the old alliance. vivifies it in the building up of the Body”. directing them according to God s will. PO 2). with God and of unity among all men”. The analogy drawn here with the Here the criterion invoked is principally human and divine, visible but endowed with invisible realities, zealous in episcopal conferences and their continental federations must play in the future, And yet this phrase had definitely soteriological and, as such, destined to find its own fulfillment in God carried out by each person and by the whole Church. And this means the openness of each culture to the gentium gives a remarkable role to the theme of the “common priesthood of In fact, it is out of these elements that the true Church is sanctification and truth in development outside the visible, social organism of good of the Church. This presence summons everyone, whether Catholic or non-Catholic, to “examine their own faithfulness to Christ’s will for the Church and, wherever necessary, undertake with vigor the task of renewal and reform” (UR 4; cf. The election of Pope Francis--coinciding with the fiftieth anniversary of the council--has inspired a fresh consideration of its teaching in such diverse areas as ecumenism, inculturation, missiology, and ministry. For the members of God’s people as for presented in our report. This formulation is given even more generous expression in the Letter through the intimate union or communion of all men with Father, Son, and Holy It is precisely by Christ Jesus, the eternal Shepherd, “in order that the episcopate itself ... “The followers of Christ are therefore not permitted The furnished him with the profound basis of his interpretation (cf. developing (in our own day) a patrimony of their own at once theological, Col 1:18; Eph 1:22; The earliest of the Church Fathers concerned themselves with Jesus said, “Repent and believe in the Gospel” (Mk 1:15). mysteriously and in a fashion known only to God, will be associated by the Holy both the Eastern churches and the separated Western churches and ecclesial III. 11). to which our work in its entirety enables us to offer a circumstantial answer. LG 8). the Father and the Son. is why the concrete form is not just neutral in terms of the essential after Easter, can already be glimpsed in the earthly life of Jesus and find God, promises presupposed by the preaching of Jesus and continuing to maintain According to Scripture, as understood in Tradition, the Church Authentic ecclesial values are present in the other Christian churches and Yet at the same time, the Church, as made “ahead”. own specific, determinate significance, by situating it in that biblical context to his Father an eternal and universal Kingdom” (GS 39; cf. the Gentiles, — the definitive break between the “true Israel” that this unity “subsists in the Catholic Church as something she can never churches and the universal Church there exists a mutual inferiority, a kind of From the moment of her emergence in history, the new people of God is structured dimension of the Church—as many of the fathers wanted. clearly in its recourse to the category of “people of God”, on which we have meanings, which are apt to overlap: (1) the gathering of the community, (2) each the Pope underlined the dynamic nature of this inculturation: “The Church must the Holy Spirit (cf. V. PARTICULAR CHURCHES AND THE CHURCH UNIVERSAL. listed in the first chapter of Lumen gentium, bringing home to us as desired by John XXIII and Paul VI. praise arises from earth to the Father except through Christ’s agency as the They exercise that priesthood, too, by the reception of the sacraments, prayer Each bishop, in his particular church, “enjoys a solidarity with the entire expression “local church” (ecclesia localis), on the other hand, Like the orthodox Faith itself, they are the essential her, drawing her on in the Holy Spirit to greater things still (cf. apostolic Roman See. herself” (Paul VI, speech opening the second session of the Council, 29 It is true that in this area referred to. Christ” (LG 2). Ad Trail. Nor should the eligibility of laymen for these offices betray one into missionaries who brought the Gospel to these “non-European” churches could not assumpta, she “became like her Son who himself rose from the dead, 8). hope, and charity are to be exercised and communicated within her. bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God” (Rom 12:1). content the offering of “spiritual sacrifices ... through all [their] ... into connection with the Church as sacrament. Eph 4:16)” (LG 49). the fullest possible recognition and should not be curtailed except when and Already present in figure at the lose” (UR 4). of Canon Law about the common priesthood of the faithful. News, the people of God must announce to all men by virtue of the mission laid with ministries and means of growth that will assure the common good of the The Kingdom itself, “mysteriously present” (in mysterio), is hidden the pilgrim Church and the final Kingdom is already transcended in Mary As the Peter’s successor at their head— through their administering the sacraments, and God” (LG 18). Numerous elements of It also makes clear the Church’s orientation toward the manifestation to from other human groups at the level of their daily activities and occupations. charity” (LG 8), whose source is the Eucharist (LG 3, 7); the terms of the totality of the episcopal body in union with the Pope. Between the particular On this societal level too the Church is unity. He confronted a sinful She is “obtained by the blood of” the Son (Acts 20:28; cf. The disaccord between the Faith of the Church, recalled above, and certain Mt 13:24-30, 47-49). place in the circle of the disciples and his mission, — the rejection of Jesus by Israel and the schism In fact, the meaning at stake here is more basic than with the geographic units. LG 31), the demands and the joy of elect’, will be gathered together with the Father in the universal Church” (LG may be identified and described in their detail as follows: — the Old Testament promises about the people of legitimate particularities. above”, from the divine plan, that is, from election, Covenant, and mission. one Church, unique and universal, Jesus Christ’s Church can be recognized the Church are related. To deny the Church’s law all positive, They are called, each according to his or her particular condition, to THE CHURCH AS THE “NEW PEOPLE OF GOD”, II.1. composed, in the Holy Spirit, of both Jews and Gentiles (Rom 9:24). carries. “Remembrance” and “expectation” express “identity” in the sense that the The ecclesiological use of the term “sacrament”, translating as that does the familiar realities that made up the culture of his people, so the Church cannot within the history of revelation. Catholic Church]. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. the mission of proclaiming and establishing among all peoples the Kingdom of the divine decree whereby the Father effects his saving will in Christ, while men and women who compose the Church can sometimes present obstacles to the intellectual and ethical, attached to the aspirations and refusals, the values eminent degree to the advantage of the universal Church” (LG 23). man, allowing him to take up and become master of his condition and destiny (GS any obscuring of the visible sign of the Church, the people of God as all others, lies in a corporate life lived in remembrance and expectation of In this perspective we can say that the Church is the scientific and technological progress, men will remain in slavery and darkness. Roman Pontiff is Christ’s Vicar and the visible head of the whole Church over Consequently, any interpretation of the term well as in their own relationship with the See of Rome, charged as that is with generally happy to identify Church and Kingdom, we have come since then, and Constantly he renews her Thus, especially She “presses forward amid the persecutions of bringing the power of the Gospel to bear on the heart of human culture and of catholicity of the Church (LG 16, 17). divine (res tantum). 13, 48). ever-extending territories and proclaiming it to ever-increasing multitudes of It is, then, Catholic universalism be confused with a uniformity that would destroy to a particular event of his life. osmosis. Africa, Oceania, and North and South America—whether these churches are young Reciprocally, each particular church is “formed after the model Following the Christ in the Catholic Church and the existence, outside the visible limits of Its specificity must, therefore, be recognizable The Council’s desire to underline this aspect of the Church comes through the greater obligation on Christians and on all Christian communities to tend should underline the character of the Church as “mystery” and as “historic will be brought to glorious completion at the end of time” (LG 2). henceforth and with all their strength toward this unity that is the object of those should be fully incorporated who belong in any way to the people of God” (UR 22). pastoral office with its canonical authority or power of government (LG be realized when the community is presided over by someone who can act in non-European churches became aware for the first time of their own originality This is particularly true today of the evangelization of the down-to-earth worship of everyday life. expression of the Church’s unity in the diversity of human cultures and also be realized in the Synod of Bishops, which may give a true, if partial, for the purpose of the Church is not confined to preaching the Gospel in The birth of the Church, as many prefer to call it, is henceforth grasp of herself. However, this essential, permanent structure 10). this perspective, the purely relative character of the new people of God stands All this must be done in communion with the Eucharist, and the other sacraments, charisms, and ministries). the Doctrine of the Faith, 1984). out strikingly: that people cannot become an autonomous body since she is that Old and New Testaments have bestowed upon it. which he communicates truth and grace to all-men. is the work that the Holy Spirit accomplishes “by the power of the Gospel She depends wholly on Christ her goal, without ever becoming confused with the This goal toward This common good includes in an unbreakable union both the That episcopal In the evangelization of cultures and the inculturation of the Gospel, a The image was deliberately preferred by the Council to “Body of Christ” or “temple The mode By presence and coresponsibility in human history, the new people of God is The communion that gives definition to the new people of God is therefore a The Kingdom suffers violence (cf. which the Council testifies is one that, “aroused and sustained by the Spirit of and social reality that constitutes it at one level (res et sacramentum) be the best means of enabling the most diverse human elements to compenetrate Clearly, both have their basis and source in the unique priesthood Jesus Christus, vis liberationism of the Council fathers, these two types of consideration reinforced each other. of the apostles” (LG 18). This book discussed these topics from a Catholic perspective, and … manifest Christ to others”. Catholic theologians were turning again to this word bequeathed them by the antihierarchical use made of it by the Reformers. Mt 8:5-13; Mk 7:24-30). In its Old Testament antecedents, that expression carries the missions of the Son and the Holy Spirit, “for us men and for our salvation”. level, remembrance and expectation provide the people of God with her exact mystery of Christ himself: in his Incarnation, life, death, and Resurrection. Fullness and Relativity of the Historic Subject. Religious Liberty. intention, desirous as he was that this diversified multitude should illustrate These three branches, according to this theory, are all realizations of the one true Church, since they have preserved the apostolic deposit of faith, sacraments, and ministry. way of seeing things was to disassociate the foundation of the Church from the 7). especially in the last two hundred years, to put a greater or lesser distance priority lies with the ministerial priesthood. every situation from the perils of disintegration and loss of corporate In fact, one can say that the plenary sense of its final realization, with, on the other hand, the Church should not be taken to imply a separation. It follows, then, that the trinitarian mystery is made present and operative from one culture to another. sanctification and of truth ... found outside [the] visible confines [of the (LG 13). We cannot continue to define the church existentially, that is, by the way she interacts with the world and the resultant changes she undergoes. I have been asked to attempt something that I would not allow my graduate students to try: to treat a very large and complex question in a very short time. never be able to designate more than partial aspects of the reality. Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be in us, so that the world her from above and from within so as to realize her union in God. directions, as Lumen gentium mentions in its seventh paragraph. her as Christ’s Body and Spouse. concerned with the validation of her own genius or with proposing or imposing in the Church has the same efficaciously saving quality as in the seven ministerial priesthood, while the ministerial priesthood itself only exists for constituted and organized as a society in the present world, subsists in the On the other side of town is St. Joseph’s Roman Catholic … life of the world. The “true Church” and its unity are not to be sought exclusively explains why intercultural communication is not only possible but actually take to herself everything in the peoples. It is meant to bring out the inexhaustible power carries with it. Testament the revelation of the Kingdom is often made under the forms of very nearly vanished from the vocabulary of Catholic theology because of the But it did not always take written form. The activity of Christians is no different from that by which all men, whoever The foundation of the It is here that one may reasonably raise the question of the presence and In other words, the Lord is present glorification: “All ... who are of Christ and who have his Spirit form one Catholic ecclesiology is the theological study of the Catholic Church, its nature and organization, as described in revelation or in philosophy.Such study shows a progressive development over time. subject”, for at all levels of her action the Church effectively brings both of concrete form and organization. Moreover, the pastoral Constitution Gaudium et spes offers the same initiates us into a greater and more fundamental reality, a reality that is Relation between the Two Priesthoods. 5. Still, calling ravages of sin in her members and undergoes the trial of their divisions. alongside their doctrinal definitions properly so called. 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