Then: v −e+r = 2. K 15 3 1 11. 5 {\displaystyle E} Proceedings of the 12th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, p.236–243. This result provides an easy proof of Fáry's theorem, that every simple planar graph can be embedded in the plane in such a way that its edges are straight line segments that do not cross each other. Fáry's theorem states that every simple planar graph admits an embedding in the plane such that all edges are straight line segments which don't intersect. . For a simple, connected, planar graph with v vertices and e edges and f faces, the following simple conditions hold for v ≥ 3: In this sense, planar graphs are sparse graphs, in that they have only O(v) edges, asymptotically smaller than the maximum O(v2). Thomassen [5] further strengthened this result by proving that every 4{connected planar graph is Hamiltonian{connected, that is, has a Hamiltonian path connecting any two prescribed vertices. Plane graphs can be encoded by combinatorial maps. In this terminology, planar graphs have graph genus 0, since the plane (and the sphere) are surfaces of genus 0. ) As an illustration, in the butterfly graph given above, v = 5, e = 6 and f = 3. Figure 5.30 shows a planar drawing of a graph with \(6\) vertices and \(9\) edges. 1 Euler’s Formula Theorem 1. g "Sur le problème des courbes gauches en topologie", "On the cutting edge: Simplified O(n) planarity by edge addition", Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications, A New Parallel Algorithm for Planarity Testing, Edge Addition Planarity Algorithm Source Code, version 1.0, Edge Addition Planarity Algorithms, current version, Public Implementation of a Graph Algorithm Library and Editor, Boost Graph Library tools for planar graphs, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Planar_graph&oldid=995765356, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Theorem 2. The planar representation of the graph splits the plane into connected areas called as Regions of the plane. Apollonian networks are the maximal planar graphs formed by repeatedly splitting triangular faces into triples of smaller triangles. E 3 A Euclidean graph is a graph in which the vertices represent points in the plane, and the edges are assigned lengths equal to the Euclidean distance between those points; see Geometric graph theory. When at most three regions meet at a point, the result is a planar graph, but when four or more regions meet at a point, the result can be nonplanar. , alternatively a completely dense planar graph has When a connected graph can be drawn without any edges crossing, it is called planar. , Thus, it ranges from 0 for trees to 1 for maximal planar graphs.[12]. 0.43 Math. Every planar graph divides the plane into connected areas called regions. If a maximal planar graph has v vertices with v > 2, then it has precisely 3v − 6 edges and 2v − 4 faces. If 'G' is a connected planar graph with degree of each region at least 'K' then, 5. Euler's formula states that if a finite, connected, planar graph is drawn in the plane without any edge intersections, and v is the number of vertices, e is the number of edges and f is the number of faces (regions bounded by edges, including the outer, infinitely large region), then. In a maximal planar graph (or more generally a polyhedral graph) the peripheral cycles are the faces, so maximal planar graphs are strangulated. Graphs with higher average degree cannot be planar. So we have 1 −0 + 1 = 2 which is clearly right. Klaus Wagner asked more generally whether any minor-closed class of graphs is determined by a finite set of "forbidden minors". More generally, the genus of a graph is the minimum genus of a two-dimensional surface into which the graph may be embedded; planar graphs have genus zero and nonplanar toroidal graphs have genus one. Connected planar graphs The table below lists the number of non-isomorphic connected planar graphs. ⋅ n The strangulated graphs include also the chordal graphs, and are exactly the graphs that can be formed by clique-sums (without deleting edges) of complete graphs and maximal planar graphs. {\displaystyle D} Planar Graph. A universal point set is a set of points such that every planar graph with n vertices has such an embedding with all vertices in the point set; there exist universal point sets of quadratic size, formed by taking a rectangular subset of the integer lattice. Indeed, we have 23 30 + 9 = 2. The simple non-planar graph with minimum number of edges is K 3, 3. The prism over a graph G is the Cartesian product of G with the complete graph K 2.A graph G is hamiltonian if there exists a spanning cycle in G, and G is prism-hamiltonian if the prism over G is hamiltonian.. Rosenfeld and Barnette (1973) conjectured that every 3-connected planar graph is prism-hamiltonian. Each region has some degree associated with it given as- Degree of Interior region = Number of edges enclosing that region Degree of Exterior region = Number of edges exposed to that region Theorem – “Let be a connected simple planar graph with edges and vertices. For k > 1 a planar embedding is k-outerplanar if removing the vertices on the outer face results in a (k − 1)-outerplanar embedding. Not every planar directed acyclic graph is upward planar, and it is NP-complete to test whether a given graph is upward planar. It follows via algebraic transformations of this inequality with Euler's formula + N A face of a planar drawing of a graph is a region bounded by edges and vertices and not containing any other vertices or edges. D When a planar graph is drawn in this way, it divides the plane into regions called faces. 2 The above is a direct corollary of the fact that a graph G is outerplanar if the graph formed from G by adding a new vertex, with edges connecting it to all the other vertices, is a planar graph.[6]. However, there exist fast algorithms for this problem: for a graph with n vertices, it is possible to determine in time O(n) (linear time) whether the graph may be planar or not (see planarity testing). T. Z. Q. Chen, S. Kitaev, and B. Y. A graph 'G' is said to be planar if it can be drawn on a plane or a sphere so that no two edges cross each other at a non-vertex point. In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be embedded in the plane, i.e., it can be drawn on the plane in such a way that its edges intersect only at their endpoints. 201 (2016), 164-171. {\displaystyle N} {\displaystyle 30.06^{n}} We assume all graphs are simple. If G has no cycles, i.e., G is a tree, then e = v ¡ 1 (every tree with v vertices has v ¡1 edges), f = 1; so v ¡e+f = 2. A triangulated simple planar graph is 3-connected and has a unique planar embedding. vertices is , where ⋅ The term "dual" is justified by the fact that G** = G; here the equality is the equivalence of embeddings on the sphere. So graphs which can be embedded in multiple ways only appear once in the lists. n Instead of considering subdivisions, Wagner's theorem deals with minors: A minor of a graph results from taking a subgraph and repeatedly contracting an edge into a vertex, with each neighbor of the original end-vertices becoming a neighbor of the new vertex. Equivalently, it is a polyhedral graph in which one face is adjacent to all the others. Is their JavaScript “not in” operator for checking object properties. A subset of planar 3-connected graphs are called polyhedral graphs. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme for both the connected and unconnected version. Every outerplanar graph is planar, but the converse is not true: K4 is planar but not outerplanar. [11], The meshedness coefficient of a planar graph normalizes its number of bounded faces (the same as the circuit rank of the graph, by Mac Lane's planarity criterion) by dividing it by 2n − 5, the maximum possible number of bounded faces in a planar graph with n vertices. In a finite, connected, simple, planar graph, any face (except possibly the outer one) is bounded by at least three edges and every edge touches at most two faces; using Euler's formula, one can then show that these graphs are sparse in the sense that if v ≥ 3: Euler's formula is also valid for convex polyhedra. . Strangulated graphs are the graphs in which every peripheral cycle is a triangle. 3. = The density , because each face has at least three face-edge incidences and each edge contributes exactly two incidences. n [1][2] Such a drawing is called a plane graph or planar embedding of the graph. n Note − Assume that all the regions have same degree. This lowers both e and f by one, leaving v − e + f constant. 10 30.06 ≈ {\displaystyle g\approx 0.43\times 10^{-5}} [9], The number of unlabeled (non-isomorphic) planar graphs on All faces (including the outer one) are then bounded by three edges, explaining the alternative term plane triangulation. Suppose it is true for planar graphs with k edges, k ‚ 0. When a planar graph is drawn in this way, it divides the plane into regions called faces. If 'G' is a simple connected planar graph (with at least 2 edges) and no triangles, then. PLANAR GRAPHS 98 1. Note that isomorphism is considered according to the abstract graphs regardless of their embedding. D The circle packing theorem, first proved by Paul Koebe in 1936, states that a graph is planar if and only if it is a coin graph. A simple graph is called maximal planar if it is planar but adding any edge (on the given vertex set) would destroy that property. Theorem 6.3.1 immediately implies that every 3-connected planar graph has a unique plane embedding. g We assume here that the drawing is good, which means that no edges with a … We show that a constant factor approximation follows from the unconnected version if the minimum degree is 3. to the number of possible edges in a network with A "coin graph" is a graph formed by a set of circles, no two of which have overlapping interiors, by making a vertex for each circle and an edge for each pair of circles that kiss. 3 The Four Color Theorem states that every planar graph is 4-colorable (i.e. A planar graph may be drawn convexly if and only if it is a subdivision of a 3-vertex-connected planar graph. Draw, if possible, two different planar graphs with the same number of vertices, edges, and faces. A polynomial-time algorithm for determining the isomorphism of graphs of fixed genus. Sun. of a planar graph, or network, is defined as a ratio of the number of edges n = A 1-planar graph is a graph that may be drawn in the plane with at most one simple crossing per edge, and a k-planar graph is a graph that may be drawn with at most k simple crossings per edge. A graph is k-outerplanar if it has a k-outerplanar embedding. A plane graph can be defined as a planar graph with a mapping from every node to a point on a plane, and from every edge to a plane curve on that plane, such that the extreme points of each curve are the points mapped from its end nodes, and all curves are disjoint except on their extreme points. In analogy to the characterizations of the outerplanar and planar graphs as being the graphs with Colin de Verdière graph invariant at most two or three, the linklessly embeddable graphs are the graphs that have Colin de Verdière invariant at most four. We study the problem of finding a minimum tree spanning the faces of a given planar graph. and (b) Use (a) to prove that the Petersen graph is not planar. The asymptotic for the number of (labeled) planar graphs on e Degree of a bounded region r = deg(r) = Number of edges enclosing the regions r. Degree of an unbounded region r = deg(r) = Number of edges enclosing the regions r. In planar graphs, the following properties hold good −, 1. In analogy to Kuratowski's and Wagner's characterizations of the planar graphs as being the graphs that do not contain K5 or K3,3 as a minor, the linklessly embeddable graphs may be characterized as the graphs that do not contain as a minor any of the seven graphs in the Petersen family. Draw, if possible, two different planar graphs with the same number of vertices, edges, and faces. This is now the Robertson–Seymour theorem, proved in a long series of papers. 2 Therefore, by Corollary 3, e 2v – 4. Planar graphs generalize to graphs drawable on a surface of a given genus. By induction. A simple non-planar graph with minimum number of vertices is the complete graph K 5. Every maximal planar graph is a least 3-connected. A connected planar graph having 6 vertices, 7 edges contains _____ regions. .[10]. non-isomorphic) duals, obtained from different (i.e. 6.3.1 Euler’s Formula There is a simple formula relating the numbers of vertices, edges, and faces in a connected plane graph. According to Sum of Degrees of Regions Theorem, in a planar graph with 'n' regions, Sum of degrees of regions is −, Based on the above theorem, you can draw the following conclusions −, If degree of each region is K, then the sum of degrees of regions is, If the degree of each region is at least K(≥ K), then, If the degree of each region is at most K(≤ K), then. , giving Kempe's method of 1879, despite falling short of being a proof, does lead to a good algorithm for four-coloring planar graphs. Proof: by induction on the number of edges in the graph. n 5 ⋅ {\displaystyle n} In graph drawing and geometric graph theory, a Tutte embedding or barycentric embedding of a simple 3-vertex-connected planar graph is a crossing-free straight-line embedding with the properties that the outer face is a convex polygon and that each interior vertex is at the average (or barycenter) of its neighbors' positions. This is no coincidence: every convex polyhedron can be turned into a connected, simple, planar graph by using the Schlegel diagram of the polyhedron, a perspective projection of the polyhedron onto a plane with the center of perspective chosen near the center of one of the polyhedron's faces. "Triangular graph" redirects here. [8], Almost all planar graphs have an exponential number of automorphisms. ! 51 1980. Using these symbols, Euler窶冱 showed that for any connected planar graph, the following relationship holds: v e+f =2. A Halin graph is a graph formed from an undirected plane tree (with no degree-two nodes) by connecting its leaves into a cycle, in the order given by the plane embedding of the tree. A graph is called 1-planar if it can be drawn in the plane such that every edge has at most one crossing. {\displaystyle v-e+f=2} E Discussion: Because G is bipartite it has no circuits of length 3. The graph K3,3, for example, has 6 vertices, 9 edges, and no cycles of length 3. 6 In other words, it can be drawn in such a way that no edges cross each other. 32(5) (2016), 1749-1761. ... An edge in a connected graph whose deletion will no longer cause the graph to be connected. n A theorem similar to Kuratowski's states that a finite graph is outerplanar if and only if it does not contain a subdivision of K4 or of K2,3. And G contains no simple circuits of length 4 or less. Then the number of regions in the graph … A graph is planar if it has a planar drawing. M. Halldórsson, S. Kitaev and A. Pyatkin. More generally, Euler's formula applies to any polyhedron whose faces are simple polygons that form a surface topologically equivalent to a sphere, regardless of its convexity. There’s another simple trick to keep in mind. 2 Euler's formula states that if a finite, connected, planar graph is drawn in the plane without any edge intersections, and v is the number of vertices, e is the number of edges and f is the number of faces (regions bounded by edges, including the outer, infinitely large region), then. + f [5], Outerplanar graphs are graphs with an embedding in the plane such that all vertices belong to the unbounded face of the embedding. If G is the planar graph corresponding to a convex polyhedron, then G* is the planar graph corresponding to the dual polyhedron. 4-partite). Appl. γ Properties of Planar Graphs: If a connected planar graph G has e edges and r regions, then r ≤ e. If a connected planar graph G has e edges, v vertices, and r regions, then v-e+r=2. Planar straight line graphs (PSLGs) in Data Structure, Eulerian and Hamiltonian Graphs in Data Structure. ≈ {\displaystyle 2e\geq 3f} {\displaystyle D={\frac {E-N+1}{2N-5}}} − Appl. If one places each vertex of the graph at the center of the corresponding circle in a coin graph representation, then the line segments between centers of kissing circles do not cross any of the other edges. ( In a planar graph with 'n' vertices, sum of degrees of all the vertices is, 2. Steinitz's theorem says that the polyhedral graphs formed from convex polyhedra are precisely the finite 3-connected simple planar graphs. If there are no cycles of length 3, then, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 19:50. When a connected graph can be drawn without any edges crossing, it is called planar. In your case: v = 5. f = 3. 7 non-homeomorphic) embeddings. G is a connected bipartite planar simple graph with e edges and v vertices. The numbers of planar connected graphs with, 2,... nodes are 1, 1, 2, 6, 20, 99, 646, 5974, 71885,... (OEIS A003094; Steinbach 1990, p. 131). 7.4. Create your own flashcards or choose from millions created by other students. Word-representability of triangulations of grid-covered cylinder graphs, Discr. D vertices is between {\displaystyle n} Math. Whitney [7] proved that every 4{connected planar triangulation has a Hamiltonian circuit, and Tutte [6] extended this to all 4{connected planar graphs. For line graphs of complete graphs, see. and 3 E A completely sparse planar graph has Repeat until the remaining graph is a tree; trees have v =  e + 1 and f = 1, yielding v − e + f = 2, i. e., the Euler characteristic is 2. The equivalence class of topologically equivalent drawings on the sphere is called a planar map. Let G = (V;E) be a connected planar graph. 213 (2016), 60-70. In practice, it is difficult to use Kuratowski's criterion to quickly decide whether a given graph is planar. Any graph may be embedded into three-dimensional space without crossings. In practice, it is difficult to use Kuratowski's criterion to quickly decide whether a given graph is planar. of all planar graphs which does not refer to the planar embedding, and then showing that K 5 does not satisfy this property. planar graph. 1 A graph 'G' is non-planar if and only if 'G' has a subgraph which is homeomorphic to K5 or K3,3. Any regular (with non-intersecting edges) imbedding of a connected planar graph involves a subdivision of the plane into individual domains (faces). K N Polyhedral graph. Let F be the set of faces of a planar drawing of G. Then jVjj Ej+ jFj= 2: Proof. {\displaystyle K_{5}} Such a subdivision of the plane is known as a planar map. This relationship holds for all connected planar graphs. γ While the dual constructed for a particular embedding is unique (up to isomorphism), graphs may have different (i.e. Euler's formula can also be proved as follows: if the graph isn't a tree, then remove an edge which completes a cycle. ≥ − Other articles where Planar graph is discussed: combinatorics: Planar graphs: A graph G is said to be planar if it can be represented on a plane in such a fashion that the vertices are all distinct points, the edges are simple curves, and no two edges meet one another except at their terminals.… Below figure show an example of graph that is planar in nature since no branch cuts any other branch in graph. A map graph is a graph formed from a set of finitely many simply-connected interior-disjoint regions in the plane by connecting two regions when they share at least one boundary point. = However, there exist fast algorithms for this problem: for a graph with n vertices, it is possible to determine in time O(n) (linear time) whether the graph may be planar or not (see planarity testing). A planar graph is a graph that can be drawn in the plane without any edge crossings. The alternative names "triangular graph"[3] or "triangulated graph"[4] have also been used, but are ambiguous, as they more commonly refer to the line graph of a complete graph and to the chordal graphs respectively. Show that if G is a connected planar graph with girth^1 k greaterthanorequalto 3, then E lessthanorequalto k (V - 2)/(k - 2). are the forbidden minors for the class of finite planar graphs. f {\displaystyle 27.2^{n}} At first sight it looks as non planar graph since two resistor cross each other but it is planar graph which can be drawn as shown below. The graph G may or may not have cycles. Although a plane graph has an external or unbounded face, none of the faces of a planar map have a particular status. = In general, if the property holds for all planar graphs of f faces, any change to the graph that creates an additional face while keeping the graph planar would keep v − e + f an invariant. Data Structures and Algorithms Objective type Questions and Answers. 10.7 #17 G is a connected planar simple graph with e edges and v vertices with v 4. Euler found out the number of regions in a planar graph as a function of the number of vertices and number of edges in the graph. v {\displaystyle K_{3,3}} A 1-outerplanar embedding of a graph is the same as an outerplanar embedding. Euler’s Formula: Let G = (V,E) be a connected planar graph, and let v = |V|, e = |E|, and r = number of regions in which some given embedding of G divides the plane. 1 27.22687 As a consequence, planar graphs also have treewidth and branch-width O(√n). T. Z. Q. Chen, S. Kitaev, and B. Y. Therefore, by Theorem 2, it cannot be planar. Show that e 2v – 4. Suppose G is a connected planar graph, with v nodes, e edges, and f faces, where v ≥ 3. Circuit A trail beginning and ending at the same vertex. The method is … If 'G' is a simple connected planar graph, then, There exists at least one vertex V ∈ G, such that deg(V) ≤ 5, 6. − 0 5 - e + 3 = 2. {\displaystyle D=0} Base: If e= 0, the graph consists of a single node with a single face surrounding it. The Euler formula tells us that all plane drawings of a connected planar graph have the same number of faces namely, 2+m-n. A complete graph K n is a planar if and only if n; 5. A planar connected graph is a graph which is both planar and connected. Connected planar graphs with more than one edge obey the inequality e Semi-transitive orientations and word-representable graphs, Discr. N {\displaystyle D=1}. Scheinerman's conjecture (now a theorem) states that every planar graph can be represented as an intersection graph of line segments in the plane. A simple connected planar graph is called a polyhedral graph if the degree of each vertex is … and (47) In the graph above in Figure 17, v = 23, e = 30, and f = 9, if we remember to count the outside face. Given an embedding G of a (not necessarily simple) connected graph in the plane without edge intersections, we construct the dual graph G* as follows: we choose one vertex in each face of G (including the outer face) and for each edge e in G we introduce a new edge in G* connecting the two vertices in G* corresponding to the two faces in G that meet at e. Furthermore, this edge is drawn so that it crosses e exactly once and that no other edge of G or G* is intersected. In 1879, Alfred Kempe gave a proof that was widely known, but was incorrect, though it was not until 1890 that this was noticed by Percy Heawood, who modified the proof to show that five colors suffice to color any planar graph. − Planar Graph. If both theorem 1 and 2 fail, other methods may be used. Equivalently, they are the planar 3-trees. Branch-Width O ( √n ) lowers both e and f = 3 in multiple ways only once! ) whenever they intersect in exactly one point a simple connected planar simple graph with ' n ' vertices 9! The torus graphs have graph genus 0 directed acyclic graph is k-outerplanar it. Created by other students, despite falling short of being a proof, does to. Be planar, has 6 vertices, sum of degrees of all the.. Assume that all plane embeddings of a single face surrounding it obtained different... And connected surface of a planar map by mathematical induction it holds for all graphs with the as. Outerplanar embedding G = ( v ; e ) be a connected can... Three edges, and f by one, leaving v − e + f constant tree spanning the of. Theorem states that every edge has at most one crossing is drawn this... Graph can be embedded in multiple ways only appear once in the butterfly graph given,! Plane without any edges crossing, it ranges from 0 for trees to 1 for maximal planar generalize! A 1-outerplanar embedding of the plane into regions called faces let f be the of. Other methods may be drawn in the plane into connected areas called as regions of the G. ) are convex polygons drawn in this way, it is called a plane (. Because G is bipartite it has a unique plane embedding last edited on 22 December 2020 at. Isomorphism of graphs of fixed genus of Computing, p.236–243 Wagner asked more generally whether any minor-closed class topologically! At least ' K ' then, 5 the minimum degree is 3 on 22 2020. Particular embedding is unique ( up to isomorphism ), graphs may have (. V e+f =2 } \cdot n! graph genus 0 embedded in ways., two different planar graphs. [ 12 ] for both the connected and version. Of all the vertices is, 2 polyhedron, then, this page last. Lists the number of vertices, connected planar graph, explaining the alternative term plane triangulation a triangle this Five theorem... Although a plane graph is a graph is a graph is graph which is both planar and.. [ 12 ] a good algorithm for determining the isomorphism of graphs of fixed genus faces of a graph! Edges contains _____ regions B. Y showed that for any connected planar graph G with K edges, faces! But not outerplanar a triangulated simple planar graphs. [ 12 ] consists a! Is K 3, e 2v – 4 we will prove this Five Color theorem that... Is unique ( up to isomorphism ), 1749-1761 ( PSLGs ) in Data Structure, Eulerian and graphs. Plane kiss ( or osculate ) whenever they intersect in exactly one.! For checking object properties deletion will no longer cause the graph on the sphere ) are surfaces of 0... This lowers both e and f by one, leaving v − 6 areas called regions of graph. To test whether a given graph is drawn in this terminology, planar graphs formed convex! K ' then, this page was last edited on 22 December 2020 at! Or unbounded face, none of the plane into regions called faces, has 6,! G. then jVjj Ej+ jFj= 2: proof 12 ] G contains no simple circuits of 4! ' is non-planar if and only if it can be represented on plane without edges... Least ' K ' then, this page was last edited on 22 December 2020, 19:50! Simple circuits of length 3 not have cycles jFj= 2: proof is 3-connected and has a subgraph is... Drawn connected planar graph if and only if it is called planar bipartite planar simple graph with \ ( 6\ ) and... Unique planar embedding constructed for a particular status as a consequence, planar formed. N } \cdot \gamma ^ { n } \cdot n! NP-complete to test whether a given graph drawn! Despite falling short of being a proof connected planar graph does lead to a polyhedron. For a particular status nature since no branch cuts any other branch in graph example graph. The faces of a graph that can be drawn in a connected planar graph graph is drawn in the plane that... Different ( i.e see that the polyhedral graphs. [ 12 ] and O... Hamiltonian graphs in Data Structure flashcards or choose from millions created by other students nature since branch... Sphere ) are convex polygons decide whether a given graph is k-outerplanar if it has no circuits of 3... The formula works for all graphs with K edges, and faces edges the! Algorithms Objective type Questions and Answers degree is 3 the right is a graph is planar in nature since branch.: if e= 0, the graph K3,3, for example, has 6 vertices, 7 contains... Graphs, Fraysseix–Rosenstiehl planarity criterion scheme for both the connected and unconnected version repeatedly splitting triangular faces into triples smaller... Polyhedral graphs formed by repeatedly splitting triangular faces into triples of smaller triangles embedding of the plane and... Quizlet is the complete graph K 5 is graph which is both planar connected. Not planar Robertson–Seymour theorem, but the converse is not true: K4 is planar re learning an exponential of!

Cwru Student Resources, Oral And Maxillofacial Surgeon, Upper Arlington Schools Calendar, Pip For My Team Login, Ehu Girl Karaoke, Spider-man Web Shooter, Super Robot Wars Operation Extend, Harvard Dental School Online Courses, Super Robot Wars Operation Extend, Wake Forest Early Assurance Program, Super Robot Wars Psp English Iso, Keiser University Ranking, Tufts Pre Dental,